Invasive Plant Control Database

Welcome to the Invasive Plant Control Database

This website contains information on how to control many invasive plants common to the Midwestern United States. Information was collected from both scientific literature and expert opinions and summarized by the Midwest Invasive Plant Network (MIPN), in partnership with the Mark Renz lab from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Methods that are uncommon, do not provide sufficient control, or lack information for determining effectiveness on target species are omitted. For each species, information was reviewed by four individuals, including two identified as experts on control of that species. Information is searchable by several fields to improve the user’s ability to find pertinent information. To view the search feature, you must first select an invasive plant. Additionally, users have the option of entering personal experiences with managing specific species (see “add new case studies” under search results). These case studies will be visible to all users once verified by MIPN staff.

We make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability, or availability with respect to the information or products on the website. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. References to pesticide products on this website are for your convenience and are not an endorsement or guarantee of one product over another.

Step 1: Select Plant

Step 1: Select a species by choosing a common or scientific name from the list, or by typing a name in the search box.

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Step 2: Select Search Parameters

Step 2: Select search parameter(s) of interest. If no parameters are selected all control methods will be displayed. For effectiveness ratings, methods that meet or exceed the criteria selected will be displayed.

Under the Search Results you will find

  • Plant Identification information – information on species identification, including photographs and a current distribution map.
  • Ecological Threats – threats posed to natural ecosystems by this species.
  • Case Studies – Detailed success (and failures) on how to control specific species contributed by experienced personnel.
  • Non-chemical and chemical control methods that fit the selected search criteria. Please note you are responsible for using pesticides in accordance with the label directions and state and federal laws. Herbicide availability and registered uses vary from state to state. Contact your state department of agriculture for information on the correct use and licensing required for any pesticide application.

You may reset the search criteria or the species you have selected at any time by selecting the corresponding links on the right hand side of the page.

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Seasons:



Effectiveness (in season): 


Effectiveness (year after treatment): 
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Search Results

Celastrus orbiculatus (Asian bittersweet)

Plant Identification information >
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Case Studies
Description
Treatment Description -
The primary management goal is to restore the managed site to oak savanna ecology and promote native early successional plant communities. Asian bittersweet poses a significant risk to this plant community therefore has been targeted for control. Mature vines identified to be the source of the invasion (offsite) were removed and treated with 50% glyphosate in 2008. Remaining vines were cut and treated during follow-up visits in 2011 and 2015. On-site populations consisted of vegetative vines only (<6 in height). These have been managed with prescribed burns in spring (late March-early April) of 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2012. Fuels typically consisted of oak leaf litter. Fires were described as fairly consistent in intensity over the years. In the initial years of burning (2008, 2009) fuels also included slash. As more burns were performed, leaf litter load declined over time. As leaf litter load declined, however, native grass contributions increased.

Habitat Type -
Merry Lea Environmental Center maintains a 1200-acre land reserve in Wolf Lake, Indiana. The site is within region of ancient sand dunes and its geomorphology is defined by historically glaciation. Post-European settlement the surrounding area has been primarily agricultural. The managed site of interest in this case study is approximately 2 acres and has predominantly xeric characteristics. Due to the sandy soils and sloped geography the area was historically grazed until 1984 when the land came under the management of the Merry Lea Environmental Center. Historical records and photographs suggest that the site historically was a black oak savanna. Following removal of grazing and with suppression of natural fire, woody species encroached on the site. The site was unmanaged between 1984 and 1995, but has been managed actively since then. Mechanical methods were used annually to control woody species in the late 1990¿s and early 2000¿s, including removal of autumn olive and multiflora rose, and prevention of black oak, red maple, and black cherry reproduction. Felled woody material was removed with equipment during winter months. Within the last decade, typical management includes removal with hand-held loppers and cut-stump herbicide treatment for woody shrubs (20% a.i. glyphosate). Removal of woody material resulted in opened space that may have contributed to infestation from Asian bittersweet. Fire was added to the management plan in 2008 to suppress Asian bittersweet seedlings that were first observed in 2007. These seedlings occurred in isolated patches around the bases of about 10% of overstory trees, mostly black oak. Mature vines extending up trees were identified in an offsite area directly adjacent to the management site, but no reproductive populations were discovered on site. Key native species within the management unit include black oak, little bluestem, big bluestem, round-headed bush clover, dewberry, butterfly weed, flowering spurge, showy tick-trefoil, Ohio spiderwort, deer tongue panicum, Pennsylvania sedge, Virginia creeper, and poison ivy. Species carryover from grazing includes smooth brome, Kentucky blue grass, and other sod species. Although smooth brome is non-native, it remains at low presence in lower-elevation mesic shaded areas, and is not considered noxious at this location.

Effectiveness -
Asian bittersweet seedlings (average 1/8 in stem diameter) were successfully top-killed at each of the four fire events, however, annual assessments made in July following burning indicate survival and resprouting to be common. While abundance has nearly doubled from 2008 (30%) to 2015 (50%) existing vines have remained at essentially at ground level (<1/8 in stem diameter) and are not reproductive. This suppression in growth has been maintained even in the 3 years following the 2012 burn with no additional management. Although fire can suppress growth and reproduction of Asian bittersweet, it is unclear whether or not longer-term repeat burns could kill bittersweet plants.
Non-Chemical controls
New (Type)Description
Type -
Mowing

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Cut or mow as close to root collar as possible. Begin cutting in spring and repeat every 2 weeks for the entire year to exhaust root reserves. This technique can also be used as preparation for herbicide treatment. After cutting wait at least one month to let a canopy regrowth develop before foliar spraying.
Type -
Prescribed burning

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Spring burns can kill germinating seedlings and young plants. Fire can also suppress above ground growth of established plants depending on fire intensity. After the fire, established plants will quickly resprout or reroot and reinvade areas; bittersweet is stimulated by open canopy and available nutrients, conditions that are promoted by fire. This management method is not recommended unless integrated with other techniques. A hand-held propane torch can be effective for treating seedlings. Caution must be taken when burning where the vine climbs into trees as bittersweet could act as ladder fuel and carry fire into the crown of trees.
Type -
Removal

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Seedlings and small to medium sized bittersweet plants can be controlled by pulling or digging as long as the roots are removed. Larger plants may necessitate removal of soil near the plant base to facilitate removal. If seeds are present when removal is taking place, avoid movement off-site unless material can be transported without spreading seed to other locations.
Chemical controls
New (Type)IngredientsDirections
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
triclopyr

Common product name:
Garlon 4; Element 4 (Aquatic: Garlon 3A; Element 3A)
Rate -
(broadcast) 16 - 32 fl oz/A (0.5 - 1 lb a.e./A)
(spot) 1 - 3% (0.04 - 0.1 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Remarks -
Lower concentrations are more effective in the fall.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
glyphosate

Common product name:
Roundup Pro; many others (Aquatic: Rodeo; AquaNeat)
Rate -
(broadcast) 1.5 - 3 lb a.e./A
(spot) For a 3 lb a.e./gal product. 1 - 2% (0.03 - 0.06 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Applications can result in bare ground as glyphosate is not selective. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
imazapyr

Common product name:
Arsenal; Stalker (Aquatic: Habitat; Imazapyr 2sl)
Rate -
(broadcast) 64 - 96 fl oz/A (1 - 1.5 lb a.e./A)
(spot) 1.5 - 2% (0.03 - 0.04 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Use aquatically labeled product if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Applications can result in bare ground as imazapyr is not selective and can remain in the soil for several months to over a year depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury.
Type -
Cut stump

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
glyphosate

Common product name:
Roundup Pro; many others (Aquatic: Rodeo; AquaNeat)
Rate -
(spot) For a 3 lb a.e./gal product. 20- 25% (0.6 - 0.75 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply any time of year.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Applications can result in bare ground as glyphosate is not selective. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Cut stump

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
triclopyr

Common product name:
Garlon 4; Element 4 (Aquatic: Garlon 3A; Element 3A)
Rate -
(spot) 10 - 20% in oil (0.4 - 0.8 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply any time of year.

Remarks -
Products containing this active ingredient can have different instructions for mixing. Labels will recommend mixing the product in a water or oil based carrier (e.g. basal bark oil). Consult the label to determine the appropriate carrier.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Cut stump

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
imazapyr

Common product name:
Stalker (Aquatic: Habitat; Imazapyr 2sl)
Rate -
(spot) 5% in oil (0.1 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply any time of year.

Remarks -
Products containing this active ingredient can have different instructions for mixing. Labels will recommend mixing the product in water or oil based carrier (e.g. basal bark oil). Consult the label to determine the appropriate carrier.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Applications can result in bare ground as imazapyr is not selective and can remain in the soil for several months to over a year depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Basal bark

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
triclopyr

Common product name:
Garlon 4; Element 4 (Aquatic: Garlon 3A; Element 3A)
Rate -
(spot) 20 - 30% in oil (0.8 - 1.2 lb a.e./ gal)

Timing -
Apply any time of year.

Remarks -
Products containing this active ingredient can have different instructions for mixing. Labels will recommend mixing the product in a water or oil based carrier (e.g. basal bark oil). Consult the label to determine the appropriate carrier.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Basal bark

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
imazapyr

Common product name:
Stalker (Aquatic: Habitat; Imazapyr 2sl)
Rate -
(spot) 6 - 9% in oil (0.1 - 0.2 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply any time of year.

Remarks -
Products containing this active ingredient can have different instructions for mixing. Labels will recommend mixing the product in a water or oil based carrier (e.g. basal bark oil). Consult the label to determine the appropriate carrier.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Applications can result in bare ground as imazapyr is not selective and can remain in the soil for several months to over a year depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.