Invasive Plant Control Database

Welcome to the Invasive Plant Control Database

This website contains information on how to control many invasive plants common to the Midwestern United States. Information was collected from both scientific literature and expert opinions and summarized by the Midwest Invasive Plant Network (MIPN), in partnership with the Mark Renz lab from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Methods that are uncommon, do not provide sufficient control, or lack information for determining effectiveness on target species are omitted. For each species, information was reviewed by four individuals, including two identified as experts on control of that species. Information is searchable by several fields to improve the user’s ability to find pertinent information. To view the search feature, you must first select an invasive plant. Additionally, users have the option of entering personal experiences with managing specific species (see “add new case studies” under search results). These case studies will be visible to all users once verified by MIPN staff.

We make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability, or availability with respect to the information or products on the website. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. References to pesticide products on this website are for your convenience and are not an endorsement or guarantee of one product over another.

Step 1: Select Plant

Step 1: Select a species by choosing a common or scientific name from the list, or by typing a name in the search box.

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Step 2: Select Search Parameters

Step 2: Select search parameter(s) of interest. If no parameters are selected all control methods will be displayed. For effectiveness ratings, methods that meet or exceed the criteria selected will be displayed.

Under the Search Results you will find

  • Plant Identification information – information on species identification, including photographs and a current distribution map.
  • Ecological Threats – threats posed to natural ecosystems by this species.
  • Case Studies – Detailed success (and failures) on how to control specific species contributed by experienced personnel.
  • Non-chemical and chemical control methods that fit the selected search criteria. Please note you are responsible for using pesticides in accordance with the label directions and state and federal laws. Herbicide availability and registered uses vary from state to state. Contact your state department of agriculture for information on the correct use and licensing required for any pesticide application.

You may reset the search criteria or the species you have selected at any time by selecting the corresponding links on the right hand side of the page.

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Effectiveness (in season): 


Effectiveness (year after treatment): 
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Search Results

Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweetclover)

Plant Identification information >
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Case Studies
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Non-Chemical controls
New (Type)Description
Type -
Mowing

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Mowing as low as possible (<1"), timed just after flower emergence can suppress sweetclover. Plants may resprout and still flower, but rarely produce viable seed. Monitor populations and repeat mowing if concerned about seed production. Care must be taken not to mow when mature seeds could be present as this will spread the seed. Mowing will not eradicate first year plants as they resprout. While mowing has been reported as an effective means of suppression there is no data on how many years of mowing are required to control a population.
Type -
Prescribed burning

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Dormant season burns tend to enhance sweetclover populations. Growing season (late spring to early fall) burns reduce the population of first year plants, but second year plants can survive depending on duration and intensity of fire. A spring burn in the first year followed by a growing season burn the second year has been effective in reducing sweetclover populations. Repeat this cycle until the population is suppressed to the desired level. This is most effective when all plants are in the same life stage. If second and first year plants are found together a first year burn should be followed by another treatment that targets second year plants that may not have been killed by the burn. A hand-held propane torch can be effective for treating seedlings and first year plants.
Type -
Removal

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Pulling and cutting the root from the stem are effective individual plant control techniques. Pull if soil conditions allow for the removal of the tap root. Second year plants are easier to find and pull than first year plants. Alternately, cut the entire taproot with a sharp shovel or spade 1-2" below the surface. If opened flowers are present, bag material and dispose of it in a landfill to avoid potential for seed spread.
Type -
Grazing

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Readily grazed by a variety of animals, especially during mid-season. Can cause bloating and reduce clotting if consumed in large quantities. Grazing can be an effective management tool in suppressing populations, but requires a high stocking rate early in the growing season.
Type -
Manipulation of the environment

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Mulch to a depth of 3" or more. Organic or synthetic mulches can be used. This will suppress current populations, but will have variable success depending on the number of seeds in the soil.
Chemical controls
New (Type)IngredientsDirections
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
triclopyr + fluroxypyr

Common product name:
Pasturegard HL
Rate -
(broadcast) 16 - 32 fl oz/A (triclopyr: 0.4 - 0.75 lb a.e./A + fluroxypyr: 0.12 - 0.25 lb a.e./A)
(spot) Equivalent to broadcast rates.

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out. Applications after the stem has begun to branch out are most effective.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
Triclopyr + 2,4-D

Common product name:
Crossbow; Chaser
Rate -
(broadcast) 64 fl oz/A (triclopyr: 0.5 lb a.e./A + 2,4-D: 1 lb a.e./A)
(spot) 1% (triclopyr: 0.01 lb a.e./gal + 2,4-D: 0.02 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
triclopyr

Common product name:
Garlon 4; Element 4 (Aquatic: Garlon 3A; Element 3A)
Rate -
(broadcast) 16 - 30 fl oz/A (0.5 - 1 lb a.e./A)
(spot) 1 - 2% (0.04 - 0.08 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
2,4-D

Common product name:
Many (Aquatic: DMA 4 IVM; 2,4-D Amine 4)
Rate -
(broadcast) 0.95 - 1.5 lb a.e./A
(spot) For a 3.8 lb a.e./gal product. 1% (0.04 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Use aquatically labeled product if potential exists for solution to contact surface water. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
sulfometuron

Common product name:
Oust; Spyder
Rate -
(broadcast) 3 - 5 oz/A (2.25 - 3.75 oz a.i./A)
(spot) Equivalent to broadcast rates.

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Applications can result in bare ground as sulfometuron is not selective and can remain in the soil for months depending on application rate and site conditions. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
picloram + 2,4-D

Common product name:
Tordon 101
Rate -
(broadcast) 32 - 64 fl oz/A (picloram: 0.15 - 0.30 lb a.e./A + 2,4-D: 0.5 - 1 lb a.e./A)
(spot) Equivalent to broadcast rates.

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable,particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Remains in the soil for over one year depending on application rate and has the potential to contaminate surface runoff water during this timeframe. Maintenance of a vegetative buffer strip is recommended between the areas this product is applied and surface water features. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants. Do not compost treated plants as herbicide can persist through composting process.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
aminopyralid

Common product name:
Milestone
Rate -
(broadcast) 7 fl oz/A (0.1 lb a.e./A)
(spot) Equivalent to broadcast rates.

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Remarks -
14 fl oz/A can be used as long as less than half of the area is treated. Depending on the volume of solution applied per acre, typical mixtures for spot treatments are 2-8 mL Milestone per gallon of water.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Remains in soil for up to one year depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants. Do not compost treated plants as herbicide can persist through composting process.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
metsulfuron

Common product name:
Escort XP; Ally XP
Rate -
(broadcast) 0.3 - 1 oz/A (0.2 - 0.6 oz a.i./A)
(spot) 0.04 oz/gal (0.02 oz a.i./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Remains in the soil for months depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
dicamba

Common product name:
Banvel; Clarity
Rate -
(broadcast) 16 - 32 fl oz/A (0.5 - 1 lb a.e./A)
(spot) Equivalent to broadcast rates.

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants. Rates > 16 fl oz/A (0.5 lb a.e./A) may cause stunting and discoloration of sensitive grasses, such as smooth brome.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
clopyralid

Common product name:
Transline
Rate -
(broadcast) 16 - 20 fl oz/A (0.4 - 0.5 lb a.e./A)
(spot) 0.2 - 0.4% (0.006 - 0.01 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Remains in soil for up to one year depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants. Do not compost treated plants as herbicide can persist through composting process.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
chlorsulfuron

Common product name:
Telar; Glean
Rate -
(broadcast) 0.4 - 1 oz/A (0.3 - 0.75 oz a.i./A)
(spot) 0.04 oz/gal (0.03 oz a.i./gal)

Timing -
Apply when target species is actively growing and fully leafed out.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Can remain in the soil for months depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.