Invasive Plant Control Database

Welcome to the Invasive Plant Control Database

This website contains information on how to control many invasive plants common to the Midwestern United States. Information was collected from both scientific literature and expert opinions and summarized by the Midwest Invasive Plant Network (MIPN), in partnership with the Mark Renz lab from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Methods that are uncommon, do not provide sufficient control, or lack information for determining effectiveness on target species are omitted. For each species, information was reviewed by four individuals, including two identified as experts on control of that species. Information is searchable by several fields to improve the user’s ability to find pertinent information. To view the search feature, you must first select an invasive plant. Additionally, users have the option of entering personal experiences with managing specific species (see “add new case studies” under search results). These case studies will be visible to all users once verified by MIPN staff.

We make no representations or warranties of any kind, express or implied, about the completeness, accuracy, reliability, suitability, or availability with respect to the information or products on the website. Any reliance you place on such information is therefore strictly at your own risk. References to pesticide products on this website are for your convenience and are not an endorsement or guarantee of one product over another.

Step 1: Select Plant

Step 1: Select a species by choosing a common or scientific name from the list, or by typing a name in the search box.

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Step 2: Select Search Parameters

Step 2: Select search parameter(s) of interest. If no parameters are selected all control methods will be displayed. For effectiveness ratings, methods that meet or exceed the criteria selected will be displayed.

Under the Search Results you will find

  • Plant Identification information – information on species identification, including photographs and a current distribution map.
  • Ecological Threats – threats posed to natural ecosystems by this species.
  • Case Studies – Detailed success (and failures) on how to control specific species contributed by experienced personnel.
  • Non-chemical and chemical control methods that fit the selected search criteria. Please note you are responsible for using pesticides in accordance with the label directions and state and federal laws. Herbicide availability and registered uses vary from state to state. Contact your state department of agriculture for information on the correct use and licensing required for any pesticide application.

You may reset the search criteria or the species you have selected at any time by selecting the corresponding links on the right hand side of the page.

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Effectiveness (in season): 


Effectiveness (year after treatment): 
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Search Results

Lotus corniculatus (bird's-foot trefoil)

Plant Identification information >
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Case Studies
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Non-Chemical controls
New (Type)Description
Type -
Mowing

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Repeated mowing to a height less than 2" at least once every 3 weeks during the growing season has been shown to suppress some populations. Repeating this procedure for multiple years can decrease stand cover, but will not eliminate populations.
Type -
Prescribed burning

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Late spring burns can kill germinating seedlings and can suppress above ground growth of established plants depending on fire intensity. After the fire, established plants will quickly resprout and reinvade areas and the fire will promote seed germination and seedling establishment. This management method is not recommended unless being used to prepare the site for another treatment technique. A hand-held propane torch can be effective for treating seedlings.
Type -
Removal

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
If all perennial tissue (including roots) is removed, populations can be eliminated. This can be difficult, especially in heavy soils. A pitchfork or other tool can be used to loosen the soil around the plant to make removal easier. If only removing shoots, the frequency and length of removals necessary to reduce populations is not known, but likely many removals per year for several years will be necessary to reduce established populations. If flowers present, bag material and dispose of it in a landfill or burn it to avoid potential for seed spread.
Type -
Grazing

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Bird's-foot trefoil is very palatable to a number of grazing animals. Trefoil tolerates grazing, but if heavily grazed trefoil stands can be reduced. This typically results in invasion by other non-native species. If using grazing as a control method the area should be over-seeded with desirable species or grazing should be used as part of an integrated control program. Grazing can be an effective method to prepare a site for later herbicide application.
Type -
Manipulation of the environment

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Bird's-foot trefoil is suppressed in highly fertile habitats. The addition of nitrogen can be detrimental to trefoil, however, additions of nitrogen can increase the competitive ability of invasive species as well as non-invasive species. Establishment and maintenance of vigorous species (e.g., Solidago) may effectively compete with establishing populations, however, once established trefoil readily competes with other species.
Type -
Biocontrol

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Crown and root rots are the most significant diseases of bird's-foot trefoil. The trefoil seed chalcid (Bruchophagus kolobovae Fed.) is a small, black, wasp-like insect that can reduce seed production. Biological control agents rarely eliminate entire populations, instead they reduce the cover and seed production. Contact your local department of agriculture for information on permits for the release of biological control agents.
Chemical controls
New (Type)IngredientsDirections
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
aminopyralid

Common product name:
Milestone
Rate -
(broadcast) 7 fl oz/A (0.1 lb a.e./A)
(spot) Equivalent to broadcast rates.

Timing -
Apply in spring or fall when plant is fully leafed out and actively growing.

Remarks -
14 fl oz/A can be used as long as less than half of the area is treated. Depending on the volume of solution applied per acres, typical mixtures for spot treatments are 2-8 mL Milestone per gallon of water.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Remains in soil for up to one year depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants. Do not compost treated plants as herbicide can persist through composting process.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
metsulfuron

Common product name:
Escort XP; Ally XP
Rate -
(broadcast) 0.5 - 1 oz/A (0.3 - 0.6 oz a.i./A)
(spot) 0.04 oz/gal (0.03 oz a.i./gal)

Timing -
Apply in spring when plant is fully leafed out and actively growing.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Remains in the soil for months depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
dicamba

Common product name:
Banvel; Clarity
Rate -
(broadcast) 16 - 32 fl oz/A (0.5 - 1 lb a.e./A)
(spot) Equivalent to broadcast rates.

Timing -
Apply in spring when plant is fully leafed out and actively growing.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants. Rates > 16 fl oz/A (0.5 lb a.e./A) may cause stunting and discoloration of sensitive grasses, such as smooth brome.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
2,4-D

Common product name:
Many (Aquatic: DMA 4 IVM; 2,4-D Amine 4)
Rate -
(broadcast) 2 - 4 lb a.e./A
(spot) Equivalent to broadcast rates.

Timing -
Apply in spring when plant is fully leafed out and actively growing.

Caution -
Use aquatically labeled product if potential exists for solution to contact surface water. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Professional

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
clopyralid

Common product name:
Transline
Rate -
(broadcast) 16 - 21 fl oz/A (0.4 - 0.5 lb a.e./A)
(spot) 0.4 - 0.75% (0.01 - 0.02 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply in spring when plant is fully leafed out and actively growing. A second application six weeks after the first is necessary in most cases.

Caution -
Do not apply directly to water or to areas where surface water is present. Use of this chemical in areas where soils are permeable, particularly where the water table is shallow, may result in groundwater contamination. Remains in soil for up to one year depending on application rate. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants. Do not compost treated plants as herbicide can persist through composting process.
Type -
Foliar

User Type -
Novice

Effectiveness -
in season
year after treatment
Active Ingredient (A.I.):
glyphosate

Common product name:
Roundup Pro; many others (Aquatic: Rodeo; AquaNeat)
Rate -
(broadcast) 1.5 - 3 lb a.e./A
(spot) For a 3 lb a.e./gal product. 1 - 2% (0.03 - 0.06 lb a.e./gal)

Timing -
Apply in spring when plant is fully leafed out and actively growing.

Caution -
Use product labeled for aquatic use if potential exists for solution to contact surface waters. Applications can result in bare ground as glyphosate is not selective. Overspray or drift to desirable plants should be avoided, as even minute quantities of the spray may cause severe injury to plants.